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He aphelion It is the most distant point of a planet's orbit around the Sun. It is the opposite of the Perihelion, the closest point to the Sun.
As the second of Kepler's laws states, the planet's translation speed is minimal in the aphelion. In orbital elements it is represented with a "Q".
At the beginning of July, July (generally on day 4), in the aphelion, the Earth is 152.6 million kilometers from the Sun, while at the beginning of January (also on day 4), in the perihelion or point of its orbit closest to the Sun, it is 147.5 million kilometers from the Sun.
By extension, the point of any body with an elliptical orbit that is furthest from the larger body around which it rotates is also called aphelion.
In the image you can see the difference in apparent size of the Sun observed from the Earth in the aphelion (foreground) and the perihelion (background).
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