Earth and Moon

Minerals and rocks

Minerals and rocks

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Mineralogy is the science responsible for the identification of minerals and the study of their properties, origin and classification.

The minerals appear with a wide variety of colors and structures, including types as diverse as vitreous black obsidian, jewel jasper, light and hard diamonds and soft, whitish talc. Minerals are the source of valuable metals, extracted as ores.

Among the minerals are some with internal structures that follow geometric patterns. They are called crystals. Due to their brightness, color and properties, some are considered precious stones.

On the other hand, a rock is any naturally formed mineral aggregate. The term applies to aggregates of different sizes, from the solid rock of the earth's mantle to sand and clay or mud.

In this chapter:

Sediments and strata: The result of the planet's internal activity modifies the earth's surface. These are the so-called… Read page Minerals: Minerals are bodies of solid matter in the soil that can appear in many different forms, either in form… Read page Physical properties of minerals: We can classify minerals by their physical, optical, electrical properties ... Read pageMineral types: The minerals that constitute the earth's crust have been formed from the chemical elements that ... Read pageCrystals and precious stones: Minerals can appear in nature, basically, in two ways: without a definite form ... Read page Rocks of the earth's crust: The rocks are aggregates of various minerals, although, sometimes, they can be formed by a… Read page Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks: Once the rocks have formed from the magma that rises and comes to the surface … Read page