Astronomy

Definition of the light that is projected by a celestial body/luminary

Definition of the light that is projected by a celestial body/luminary


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I'm creating an application which will simulate the light created by sun or moon on a 3d topographic map of Earth. Something like this:

Is there a word or definition for this light/light projection?


Brightness

(also surface brightness), in astronomy, a characteristic of the emittance or reflectance of the surface of a celestial body. The brightness of faint celestial sources is expressed in terms of the number of stars of a given stellar magnitude in an area measuring 1 square second of arc (arcsec 2 ), 1 square minute of arc (arcmin 2 ), or 1 square degree (deg 2 ). In other words, the illuminance from such an area is compared with the illuminance produced by a star of known stellar magnitude.

The brightness of the moonless night sky in clear weather, which is equal to 2 × 10 &ndash8 stilbs (sb), is characterized by one star of stellar magnitude 22.4 per arcsec 2 , or one star of stellar magnitude 4.61 per deg 2 . The brightness of an average nebula is equal to one star of stellar magnitude 19&ndash20 per arcsec 2 . The brightness of Venus is equal to about one star of stellar magnitude 3 per arcsec 2 . The brightness of an area of 1 arcsec 2 over which the light of a zero-magnitude star is distributed is equal to 9.25 sb. The brightness of the center of the solar disk is equal to 150,000 sb that of the full moon, to 0.25 sb.

A surface for which the brightness does not depend on the angle of inclination of the area to the line of sight is said to be orthotropic. The flux emitted by such a surface behaves in accordance with Lambert&rsquos law and is called the luminance. The unit of luminance is the lambert, which corresponds to a total flux of 1 lumen/cm 2 .


Definition of the light that is projected by a celestial body/luminary - Astronomy

2. ( a. ) of or pertaining to the spiritual heaven heavenly divine.

3. ( n. ) An inhabitant of heaven.

se-les'-chal (epouranios, "above the sky," "heavenly"): Peculiar to Paul's majestic argument on the resurrection: celestial verses terrestrial bodies (1 Corinthians 15:40) with reference possibly to sun and moon, etc., but more probably to the bodies of angels in distinction from those of beasts and mortal men (compare Christ's words, Matthew 22:30 Luke 20:36) including also doubtless in the apostle's thought the resurrection-body of Jesus and of the saints already taken-into glory. Light is thrown on its meaning by the rendering of the same Greek original as "heavenly places" (Ephesians 1:3, 20 Ephesians 2:6 Ephesians 3:10) "heavenly" (1 Corinthians 15:48). Hence, "celestial" as used by Paul indicates the soul's continued life beyond the grave, the spiritual body of the redeemed in heaven, who, in Christ, have put on immortality.

32. aggelos -- a messenger, angel
. 32 -- properly, a or -- either human (Mt 11:10 Lk 7:24, 9:52 Gal 4:14 Js 2:25)
or heavenly (a celestial ) someone (by God) to proclaim His message. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/32.htm - 8k

4756. stratia -- an army
. of stratos (an army from the base of stronnumi, as encamped) camp-likeness, ie
An army, ie (figuratively) the angels, the celestial luminaries -- host. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4756.htm - 7k

2963. kuriotes -- lordship
. domination, dignity Definition: (a) abstr: lordship, (b) concr: divine or angelic
lordship, domination, dignity, usually with reference to a celestial hierarchy .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2963.htm - 7k

4245. presbuteros -- elder
. Comparative of presbus (elderly) older as noun, a senior specially, an Israelite
Sanhedrist (also figuratively, member of the celestial council) or .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4245.htm - 7k

3770. ouranios -- of or in heaven
. heavenly. From ouranos celestial, ie Belonging to or coming from the sky -- heavenly.
see GREEK ouranos. (ouranios) -- 7 Occurrences. (ouraniou) -- 1 Occurrence .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3770.htm - 6k

To be Acquainted with Celestial Things is not Only to Know Them
. THE FOURTH CENTURY 96 To be acquainted with celestial things is not only
to know them. To be acquainted with celestial things is .
/. /traherne/centuries of meditations/96 to be acquainted with.htm

How Even Celestial Powers Above are Capable of Change.
. II. Second Conference of Abbot Moses. Chapter XVI. How even celestial powers
above are capable of change. But that even the powers .
/. /cassian/the works of john cassian /chapter xvi how even celestial.htm

The Church Triumphant 507. Light's Abode, Celestial Salem
. V. THE CHURCH The Church Triumphant 507. Light's abode, celestial Salem.
8.7.8.7.8.7 . Tr. John Mason Neale, 1858. Light's abode, celestial Salem,. .
/. /the church triumphant 507 lights.htm

Will You See the Infancy of this Sublime and Celestial Greatness? .
. THE THIRD CENTURY 1 WILL you see the infancy of this sublime and celestial greatness? .
WILL you see the infancy of this sublime and celestial greatness? .
/. /christianbookshelf.org/traherne/centuries of meditations/1 will you see the.htm

He Contends that These Testimonies Already Alleged Cannot be .
. Against Heresies: Book V Chapter XXXV."He contends that these testimonies already
alleged cannot be understood allegorically of celestial blessings, but that .
/. /irenaeus/against heresies/chapter xxxv he contends that these.htm

Your Gods, it is Recorded, Dine on Celestial Couches.
. Book IV. 33 Your gods, it is recorded, dine on celestial couches? Your
gods, it is recorded, dine on celestial couches, and in .
/. /arnobius/the seven books of arnobius against the heathen/33 your gods it is.htm

As in the Former Psalms He Propeseth True and Celestial Joys
. THE THIRD CENTURY 80 As in the former psalms he propeseth true and celestial
joys. As in the former psalms he propeseth true and .
/. /traherne/centuries of meditations/80 as in the former.htm

Whether the Intercession of the Demons Can Secure for Men the .
. Book IX. Chapter 9."Whether the Intercession of the Demons Can Secure for
Men the Friendship of the Celestial Gods. How, then, can .
/. /augustine/city of god/chapter 9 whether the intercession of.htm

That He who Has Attained to Trust, Having Put Off the Former Man .
. That he who has attained to trust, having put off the former man, ought to regard
only celestial and spiritual things, and to give no heed to the world which .
/. /cyprian/three books of testimonies against the jews/11 that he who has.htm

That the Knowledge of Terrestrial and Celestial Things Does not .
. Book V. Chapter IV."That the Knowledge of Terrestrial and Celestial Things
Does Not Give Happiness, But the Knowledge of God Only. .
/. /the confessions and letters of st/chapter iv that the knowledge of.htm

Zoroastrianism
. 6. Messiah: Similarly, the Messiah, as future king, was fixed in Jewish belief,
and His elevation to celestial position was an inevitable step in the general .
/z/zoroastrianism.htm - 17k

Nile (37 Occurrences)
. THE NILE IN RELIGION 1. The Nile as a God 2. The Nile in the Osirian Myth 3. The
Celestial Nile A river of North Africa, the great river of Egypt. .
/n/nile.htm - 29k

Terrestrial (1 Occurrence)
. 1 Corinthians 15:40 There are also celestial bodies, and terrestrial bodies but
the glory of the celestial differs from that of the terrestrial. .
/t/terrestrial.htm - 7k

Differs (3 Occurrences)
. 1 Corinthians 15:40 There are also celestial bodies, and terrestrial bodies but
the glory of the celestial differs from that of the terrestrial. (WEB). .
/d/differs.htm - 7k

Splendor (87 Occurrences)
. (See NAS). 1 Corinthians 15:40 There are also celestial bodies, and terrestrial
bodies but the glory of the celestial differs from that of the terrestrial. .
/s/splendor.htm - 29k

Astronomy
. 2. (n.) The science which treats of the celestial bodies, of their magnitudes, motions,
distances, periods of revolution, eclipses, constitution, physical .
/a/astronomy.htm - 40k

Earthly (39 Occurrences)
. 1 Corinthians 15:40 There are bodies which are celestial and there are bodies which
are earthly, but the glory of the celestial ones is one thing, and that of .
/e/earthly.htm - 22k

Bodies (144 Occurrences)
. (See NIV). 1 Corinthians 15:40 There are also celestial bodies, and terrestrial
bodies but the glory of the celestial differs from that of the terrestrial. .
/b/bodies.htm - 37k

Augury (5 Occurrences)
. The principal signs from which these augurs deduced their omens were these: (1)
celestial signs, chiefly lightning and thunder, the direction of the former .
/a/augury.htm - 17k

1 Corinthians 15:40
There are also celestial bodies, and terrestrial bodies but the glory of the celestial differs from that of the terrestrial.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV WBS RSV)

2 Peter 2:10
but chiefly those who walk after the flesh in the lust of defilement, and despise authority. Daring, self-willed, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignitaries
(See NIV)

Jude 1:8
Yet in like manner these also in their dreaming defile the flesh, despise authority, and slander celestial beings.
(WEB NIV)


Definition of the light that is projected by a celestial body/luminary - Astronomy

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An endoscopic surgical instrument that includes a channel for the introduction of supplementary instruments.

Often called the &lsquovoice box,&rsquo it is located at the top of the windpipe at the lower end of the throat. It is made up of muscles, membranes and cartilages, and contains the vocal folds (vocal cords).

To learn more, click on the link to the Acoustics Pamphlet.

The term LASER is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. It represents an optical source that produces photons (packets of light energy) that are coherent (in phase), collimated (along a straight line), and monochromatic (of the same frequency or wavelength). Lasers consist of a resonant cavity made usually with two reflecting surfaces, a gain medium, and an energy source. The gain medium can be a solid, liquid, or a gas.

To learn more about Lasers, click here.

1960, acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation."

A lens aberration resulting in image size variation as a function of wavelength.

States that the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.

States that the ratio of the sine of the angle between the normal and refracted ray is a constant. See definition for "angle of refraction."

A semiconductor device that converts electricity into light efficiently. Light from LED bulbs looks almost identical to light from conventional bulbs.

To learn more about LEDs click on the link to the Solid-State Lighting Pamphlet.

This prism inverts and reverts the image while laterally shifting the image by an amount equal to 3A, as shown in the figure.

A transparent optical component consisting of one or more pieces of optical glass with surfaces so curved that they serve to converge or diverge the transmitted rays from an object, thus forming a real or virtual image of that object.

1693, from L. lens (gen. lentis) "lentil," on analogy of the double-convex shape.

1) The length of time something is in a certain state, such as an electron bound to an atom, in an energy level higher than its ground state. 2) Lifetime is the number of hours a bulb lasts before it burns out. LEDs last for 30,000 to 50,000 hours, which is 50 times longer than incandescent lamps and 5 times longer than fluorescent lamps.

To learn more about this, click on the link the Solid-State Lighting pamphlet.

An electromagnetic wave that is visible to the eye. The elementary particle that defines light is the photon. Visible light ranges from 400 to 750 nm in wavelength.

To learn more about this, click on the link the Polarization pamphlet.

(n.) - "brightness," O.E. leht, earlier leoht, from W.Gmc. *leukhtam (cf. O.Fris. liacht, M.Du. lucht, Ger. Licht), from PIE *leuk- "light, brightness" (cf. Skt. rocate "shines" Arm. Lois "light," lusin "moon" Gk. leukos "bright, shining, white" L. lucere "to shine," lux "light," lucidus "clear" O.C.S. luci "light" Lith. laukas "pale" Welsh llug "gleam, glimmer" O.Ir. loche "lightning," luchair "brightness" Hittite lukezi "is bright"). The -gh- was an Anglo-Fr. scribal attempt to render the O.E. hard -h- sound, which has since disappeared.

The process by which white light is separated into its component wavelengths. Prisms and gratings are dispersion devices.

Light is an electromagnetic wave that is visible to the eye. The elementary particle that defines light is the photon.

To learn more, click on the link to the Spectroscopy pamphlet.

Most simply defined as the discharge of electricity from one cloud to another, or from a cloud to the ground.

A small half-shade analyzer placed in the eyepiece of a polarimeter to determine the character of the polarized light emitted by the instrument. It consists of a Nicol prism situated so that it covers half of the eyepiece's field of view.

A material that possesses less geometrical regularity or order than normal solid crystals, and whose order varies in response to alterations in temperature and other quantities.

A display formed by sandwiching a layer of liquid crystal material between two sheets of glass a transparent conductive coating on the glass is etched to form character segments. An applied voltage causes the appropriate segments to darken as the liquid crystal changes arrangement.

Data communications network in a clearly defined geographical locatio, and extending no more than a few miles in length. It generally takes in an office building or group of buildings, a campus or the like, offering many nodes and connecting computers and peripherals with high-capacity links.

A medium that scatters or absorbs radiation that passes through it.

O.E. los "loss, destruction," from P.Gmc. *losom- (cf. O.N. los "the breaking up of an army"), from PIE *lau-. The modern word, however, probably evolved 14c. from lost, the original pp. of lose.

Glowing or giving off light.

"shining, bright, luminous," c.1500, from L. lucentem, prp. of lucere "to shine" (see light (n.)).

A unit of measurement equal to the amount of light emitted per second in a unit solid angle of one steradian from a uniform source of one candela.

L. lumen, "an opening, light." A unit of light in the SI system.

An object that gives light, such as a celestial object like the Sun or Moon.

c.1450, "source of (artificial) light," from M.Fr. luminarie "lamp, light," from L.L. luminare "light, torch, lamp, heavenly body," lit. "that which gives light," from L. lumen (gen. luminis) "light." Luminosity in astronomy sense of "intrinsic brightness of a heavenly body" (as distinguished from apparent magnitude, which diminishes with distance), is attested from 1906.

Relating to light perceived by the eye, rather than the actual energy associated with the electromagnetic radiation.

1432, "full of light," from L. luminosus "shining, full of light," from lumen (gen. luminis) "light," related to lucere "to shine. "


Definition of the light that is projected by a celestial body/luminary - Astronomy

New International Version
God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars.

New Living Translation
God made two great lights—the larger one to govern the day, and the smaller one to govern the night. He also made the stars.

English Standard Version
And God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars.

Berean Study Bible
God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night. And He made the stars as well.

King James Bible
And God made two great lights the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

New King James Version
Then God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also.

New American Standard Bible
God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night He made the stars also.

NASB 1995
God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night He made the stars also.

NASB 1977
And God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night He made the stars also.

Amplified Bible
God made the two great lights—the greater light (the sun) to rule the day, and the lesser light (the moon) to rule the night He made the [galaxies of] stars also [that is, all the amazing wonders in the heavens].

Christian Standard Bible
God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule over the day and the lesser light to rule over the night—as well as the stars.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
God made the two great lights—the greater light to have dominion over the day and the lesser light to have dominion over the night—as well as the stars.

American Standard Version
And God made the two great lights the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And God made two great lights: a great light for a ruler of daytime, and one little light for a ruler of the night, and the stars.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And God made the two great lights, the greater light for regulating the day and the lesser light for regulating the night, the stars also.

Contemporary English Version
God made two powerful lights, the brighter one to rule the day and the other to rule the night. He also made the stars.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And God made two great lights: a greater light to rule the day and a lesser light to rule the night: and the stars.

English Revised Version
And God made the two great lights the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

Good News Translation
So God made the two larger lights, the sun to rule over the day and the moon to rule over the night he also made the stars.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
God made the two bright lights: the larger light to rule the day and the smaller light to rule the night. He also made the stars.

International Standard Version
God fashioned two great lights—the larger light to shine during the day and the smaller light to shine during the night—as well as stars.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night and the stars.

Literal Standard Version
And God makes the two great luminaries, the great luminary for the rule of the day, and the small luminary—and the stars—for the rule of the night

NET Bible
God made two great lights--the greater light to rule over the day and the lesser light to rule over the night. He made the stars also.

New Heart English Bible
And God made the two great lights--the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night--and the stars.

World English Bible
God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He also made the stars.

Young's Literal Translation
And God maketh the two great luminaries, the great luminary for the rule of the day, and the small luminary -- and the stars -- for the rule of the night

Genesis 1:15
And let them serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth." And it was so.

Job 38:7
while the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

Psalm 8:3
When I behold Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and the stars, which You have set in place--

Psalm 136:8
the sun to rule the day, His loving devotion endures forever.

Psalm 136:9
the moon and stars to govern the night. His loving devotion endures forever.

Isaiah 40:26
Lift up your eyes on high: Who created all these? He leads forth the starry host by number He calls each one by name. Because of His great power and mighty strength, not one of them is missing.

And God made two great lights the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

Deuteronomy 4:19 And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven.

Joshua 10:12-14 Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon…

Job 31:26 If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness


Definition of the light that is projected by a celestial body/luminary - Astronomy

At the second session of the 2006 International Astronomical Union (IAU) General Assembly, which will be held 14:00 Thursday 24 August, members of the IAU will vote on the Resolutions presented below. There will be separate sequential votes on Resolution 5A and Resolution 5B. Similarly, there will be separate votes on Resolutions 6A and 6B.

Following active discussion among IAU scientists at the IAU 2006 General Assembly in Prague, draft Resolution 6b (issued 16 August 2006) has been updated and amended.

IAU President Ron Ekers says: "IAU's rules for proposing resolutions are based on an open democratic process and it is a great pleasure for the IAU Executive Committee to see the level of engagement of so many astronomers here. We want to engage as broad a part of the IAU community as possible in the decision-making process to give this Resolution the best chance to be passed."

Below are the full texts of "IAU Resolution 5a for GA-XXVI", "IAU Resolution 5b for GA-XXVI" and "IAU Resolution 6a for GA-XXVI" and "IAU Resolution 6b for GA-XXVI". The voting will take place in four steps.

The voting on these Resolutions is expected to end today (Thursday 24 August) between 15:30 and 16:00 CEST. This is a rough estimate.

According to the revised Statutes approved at the First Session of the General Assembly last week, scientific issues such as Resolutions are decided by majority of those IAU members present and voting at the business meeting. Thus the scientific resolutions, including those on the definition of solar system bodies, will be presented and decided by voting of the individual members. Yellow ballots will be handed out to all IAU members at the entrance. Members will vote by raising these ballots in the air the number of raised ballots will be counted. The result of the vote should be known shortly thereafter and will be communicated in a public statement.

Notes

A press conference about the Closing Ceremony of the General Assembly, including the results of the planet-definition vote, will be held at 18:00, in Meeting Room 3.3 of the Prague Congress Center. (It will NOT be possible for journalists to ring in to this conference: they must be there in person.)

The panel for the press conference will be:

  • Ron Ekers (outgoing IAU President)
  • Catherine Cesarsky (incoming IAU President, Member of the Planet Definition Committee)
  • Jan Palous (Chair of the National Organising Committee)
  • Richard Binzel (Member of the Planet Definition Committee)
  • Karel van der Hucht (incoming Secretary General)
  • This press conference will conclude around 18:30 CEST.

The IAU is the international astronomical organisation that brings together distinguished astronomers from all nations of the world. Its mission is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation. Founded in 1919, the IAU is the world's largest professional body for astronomers. The IAU General Assembly is held every three years and is one of the largest and most diverse meetings on the astronomical community's calendar.

Contacts
Following the vote, some of the members of the planet definition committee will be available for interviews (after the final vote):

Richard Binzel
Member of the Planet Definition Committee
Prague Conference Center, Meeting Room 3.1
Tel: +420-261-177-110
Cell: +420-776-806-297 (during the General Assembly)

Junichi Watanabe
Member of the Planet Definition Committee
Prague Conference Center, Meeting Room 3.3
Tel: +420-261-177-081
Cell: +420-776-806-265 (during the General Assembly)

Iwan Williams
President, IAU Division III Planetary Systems Sciences
Prague Conference Center, Meeting Room 244
Tel: +420-261-177-064
Cell: +420-776-175-769 (during the General Assembly)

Owen Gingerich
Chair of the IAU Planet Definition Committee
Tel: via the Press Room +420-261-177-075

Professor Ron Ekers
IAU President
Tel: via the Press Room +420-261-177-075

Catherine Cesarsky
IAU President-Elect and member of the Planet Definition Committee
Tel: via the Press Room +420-261-177-075

PIO Source
Lars Lindberg Christensen
IAU Press Officer
Prague Congress Center
IAU GA 2006 Press office, Meeting Room 3.2
Tel: +420-261-177-075/+420-261-222-130
Cell: +49-173-3872-621
Email: lars(@)eso.org

Links

  • Programme for the Closing Ceremony: http://www.astronomy2006.com/second-session-and-closing-ceremony.php
  • Live public webcast of the Closing Ceremony: http://astronomy2006.com/tv/
  • The IAU Web page: http://www.iau.org
  • IAU News during the 2006 General Assembly: http://www.iau2006.org
  • IAU General Assembly: http://www.astronomy2006.com
  • Free registration for the media: http://www.astronomy2006.com/media-accreditation.php

RESOLUTIONS
Resolution 5A is the principal definition for the IAU usage of "planet" and related terms. Resolution 5B adds the word "classical" to the collective name of the eight planets Mercury through Neptune.

Resolution 6A creates for IAU usage a new class of objects, for which Pluto is the prototype. Resolution 6B introduces the name "plutonian objects" for this class. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines "plutonian" as:
Main Entry: plu • to • ni • an
Pronunciation: plü-'tO-nE-&n
Function: adjective
Usage: often capitalized
: of, relating to, or characteristic of Pluto or the lower world

After having received inputs from many sides -- especially the geological community -- the term "Pluton" is no longer being considered.

IAU Resolution: Definition of a Planet in the Solar System
Contemporary observations are changing our understanding of planetary systems, and it is important that our nomenclature for objects reflect our current understanding. This applies, in particular, to the designation 'planets'. The word "planet" originally described "wanderers" that were known only as moving lights in the sky. Recent discoveries lead us to create a new definition, which we can make using currently available scientific information.

RESOLUTION 5A
The IAU therefore resolves that planets and other bodies in our Solar System, except satellites,be defined into three distinct categories in the following way:

(1) A "planet"1 is a celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.

(2) A "dwarf planet" is a celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape2, (c) has not cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit, and (d) is not a satellite.

(3) All other objects3, except satellites, orbiting the Sun shall be referred to collectively as "Small Solar System Bodies".

1The eight planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
2An IAU process will be established to assign borderline objects into either dwarf planet and other categories.
3These currently include most of the Solar System asteroids, most Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), comets, and other small bodies.

RESOLUTION 5B
Insert the word "classical" before the word "planet" in Resolution 5A, Section (1), and footnote 1. Thus reading:

(1) A classical "planet"1 is a celestial body . . .

and
1The eight classical planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

RESOLUTION 6A
The IAU further resolves:

Pluto is a "dwarf planet" by the above definition and is recognized as the prototype of a new category of trans-Neptunian objects.


NATURE OF HEAVENLY BODIES – THE PLANETS

It is difficult to say whether these are referred to in the Qur’an with the same exact meaning that is given to the heavenly bodies in the present day. The planets do not have their own light. They revolve around the Sun, Earth being one of them. While one may presume that others exist elsewhere, the only ones known are those in the solar system. Five planets other than Earth were known to the ancients: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Three have been discovered in recent times: Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

The Qur’an would seem to designate these by the word kaukab (plural kawakib) without stating their number. Joseph’s dream (sum 12) refers to eleven of them, but the description is, by definition, an imaginary one.
A good definition of the meaning of the word kaukab in the Qur’an Seems to have been given in a very famous verse. The eminently spiritual nature of its deeper meaning stands forth, and is moreover the subject of much debate among experts in exegesis. It is nevertheless of great interest to offer an account of the comparison it contains on the subject of the word that would seem to designate a ‘planet’.

Here is the text in question: (sura 24, verse 35)
“God is the light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light is as if there were a niche and within it a luminary. The luminary is in a glass. The glass is as if it were a planet glittering like a pearl.”

Here the subject is the projection of light onto a body that reflects it (glass) and gives it the glitter of a pearl, like a planet that is lit by the sun. This is the only explanatory detail referring to this word to be found in the Qur’an.

The word is quoted in other verses. In some of them it is difficult to distinguish which heavenly bodies are meant (sura 6, verse 76 sura 82, verses 1-2). In one verse however, when seen in the light of modern science, it would seem very much that these can only be the heavenly bodies that we know to be planets.

In sura 37, verse 6, we see the following:
“We have indeed adorned the lowest heaven with an ornament, the planets.”

Is it possible that the expression in the Qur’an ‘lowest heaven’ means the ‘solar system’? It is known that among the celestial elements nearest to us, there are no other permanent elements apart from the planets: the Sun is the only star in the system that bears its name. It is difficult to see what other heavenly bodies could be meant if not the planets. The translation given would therefore seem to be correct and the Qur’an to refer to the existence of the planets as defined in modern times.

The Qur’an mentions the lowest heaven several times along with the heavenly bodies of which it is composed. The first among these would seem to be the planets, as we have just seen. When however the Qur’an associates material notions intelligible to us,
enlightened as we are today by modern science, with statements of a purely spiritual nature, their meaning becomes obscure.
Thus the verse quoted could easily be understood, except that the following verse of the same sura 37 speaks of a ‘guard against every rebellious evil spirit’, ‘guard’ again being referred to in sura 21, verse 32 and sura 41, verse 12, so that we are confronted by statements of quite a different kind.

What meaning can one attach moreover to the ‘projectiles for the stoning of demons’ that according to verse 5, sura 67 are situated in the lowest heaven? Do the ‘luminaries’ referred to in the same verse have something to do with the shooting stars mentioned above?

All these observations seem to lie outside the subject of this study. They have been mentioned here for the sake of completeness. At the present stage however, it would seem that scientific data are unable to cast any light on a subject that goes beyond human understanding.


Geocentrism

Think of your life now and think of how it used to be ten years ago. What did you do that was different? How was the world different? The internet? What's that? Why would I ever want a computer in my home? [I originally wrote this in the late 90s and it sounds dated now.] Go back even further and imagine yourself living one hundred years ago. No television, no radio, no automatic teller machines, no satellite communications, maybe a few phonograph records. What did people do? How did they keep themselves occupied? Go back even further. What was life like one thousand years ago? Ten thousand years ago? Yes, humans lived back then, in fact, they thrived. Humans had spread across the globe by this time. The occupied almost every piece of dry land except Antarctica and a few exceptional places like Iceland or Bermuda. What did they do? How did they amuse themselves? How did they fill up the empty hours of their days?

Why they amused themselves, of course. With no external source of entertainment, they had no choice. They sang and danced and ate and had sex and told stories and pursued specialized side interests (like weaving or brewing or religion). In other words, their lives were much like ours, except they did it all themselves. Ten thousand years ago, your life was your own (or at least, it only belonged to the small collection of people around you).

The only thing larger than your clan was the universe itself. And so it still is. The only difference is that we in the present have a better understanding of our place in the cosmos than those who lived ten thousand years ago. It is nonetheless still fascinating but you will appreciate it all the more if we begin this epic with the original stories told when humans first called themselves "the people".

One of the things you can do to occupy yourselves is to gaze up at the night sky. We don't see much in the cities today, but in the days before electric light, the Sun, moon, planets, and stars were visible on any clear night.

Keep Going. Get these paragraphs in logical order …

Astronomy is the oldest science. (Astrophysics was invented sometime in the early 20th century.) Astronomy is all light (electromagnetic radiation) and gravity (geometry).

The most obvious thing in the sky is the Sun, which makes a complete journey around the Earth (I am using the language of appearance here) on average every 24 hours. One meaning of the word "day" is the length of time the Sun is visible in the sky. For those of us living on the equator this time period is constant, but for everyone else it varies. In the tropics the day is longest in the rainy season and shortest in the dry season. For those of us living in temperate regions the day is longest is the summer and shortest in the winter. The farther one gets from the equator, the more extreme this kind of day changes in length. It's so extreme at the poles that a day of this kind will technically last half a year.

There is, of course, another definition of the word "day" and this is the one we'll be using from now on. The sun rises in the east, travels across the sky rising highest above the horizon at a time English speakers call noon, disappears below the horizon to the west, travels below the Earth as it were reaching its lowest point beneath our feet at a time. The time when this occurs is called midnight and this event has become the dividing point separating one day from the next for most of the world's people. The period of time separating one midnight from the next consecutive midnight is normally what physicists and astronomers mean when they say the word day.

To a creative mind, the pinpoints of light in the sky called stars can be grouped and arranged. The human mind is an excellent pattern recognition device and can find apparent groups in the random splattering of the stars across the sky. These patterns may be associated with mythological characters and events may arise to fit a supposed pattern after it has been seen. In either case, the patterns and the stories associated with them are wholly the creation of the human mind. To the ancients, however, these associations were real (or at least more than just a cute little story). A cluster of stars named after a mythological character or event is called a constellation.

When one looks at the sky seriously and studies it as ancient people did, the first thing one notices is that the constellations remain essentially fixed relative to one another. The big dipper of today is essentially the same as the big dipper of 8000 years ago. The second thing one would notice is that the entire night sky seems to be rotating so that after 24 hours the stars make a nearly complete circuit, returning almost exactly to the place in the sky. If one believes that the Earth is a sphere (something that educated people have known for thousands of years) then the sky is an even bigger sphere, colored black as night, and studded with glistening bright points of light. The of the Earth is like a small pit suspended in the center of a much larger .

Note how I said almost exactly the same place. If we divide our average day as defined above into twenty four evenly sized parts called hours. And if we count twelve hours from midnight to noon and then start over again with another twelve hours from noon to midnight. And if we decide to go outside and check the stars every night at the same numbered hour and see what we can see, then we would notice that the pattern of the fixed stars had made a complete revolution across the sky plus a little bit more. These little bits add up over the course of year so that in this time the fixed stars make one more revolution about the Earth than the Sun does — 366 revolutions for the stars versus 365 for the Sun.

Fun With Auto Translators
Greek πλάνητες ἀστέρες (planetes asteres) "wandering star"
Japanese 惑星 (wakusei) "confuse star"
Chinese 行星 (xíngxīng)
遊星 (yūsei)
"travel star", "wander star", "temporary star", "itinerant star"
Hungarian bolygó ?
Icelandic reikistjarna "roaming star" A calque/loan translation of the Ancient Greek coined by Jónas Hallgrímsson in 1842. The creation of this new word was part of the movement for independence from the Kingdom of Denmark, which ruled Iceland for most of its inhabited history. The Danish word for planet is planet.
Faroese gongustjørnur "walking star"
Guarani mbyjajere mbyja "star", jere "to turn"
Vietnamese hành tinh "action crystal", "onion fine"
Hawaiian hōkū hele "star going"
Kurdish gerstêrk "walking star"
Korean 행성 (haengseong) "line castle"

The names of the days of the week, in fact the whole notion that there should be seven days and not some other number, can be traced back to the wandering stars.

The seven day week in various languages * midweek, † day of the lord, †† sabbath
celestial
body
Germanic languages
Norse god English Deutsch Nederlandse
1 Sun Sunday Sonntag zondag
2 Moon Monday Montag maandag
3 Mars Týr, Tíw Tuesday Dienstag dinsdag
4 Mercury Óðinn, Wóden Wednesday Mittwoch* woensdag
5 Jupiter Þórr, Þunor Thursday Donnerstag donderdag
6 Venus Freyja, Fríge Friday Freitag vrijdag
7 Saturn Saturday Samstag zaterdag
celestial
body
romance languages
Roman god Español Français Italiano
1 Sun Sol domingo † dimanche domenica †
2 Moon Luna lunes lundi lunedì
3 Mars Maris martes mardi martedì
4 Mercury Mercurius miércoles mercredi mercoledì
5 Jupiter Iovis Pater jueves jeudi giovedì
6 Venus Venus viernes vendredi venerdì
7 Saturn Saturnus sábado †† samedi sabato ††
celestial
body
Hindi (with phonetic transliteration)
Vedic god day of week
1 Sun रवि (Ravi) रविवार (ravivār)
2 Moon सोम (Soma) सोमवार (somvār)
3 Mars मंगल (Maṁgala) मंगलवार (maṁgalvār)
4 Mercury बुध (Budʰa) बुधवार (budʰvār)
5 Jupiter गुरू (Guru) गुरुवार (guruvār)
6 Venus शुक्र (Šukra) शुक्रवार (šukravār)
7 Saturn शनि (Šani) शनिवार (šanivār)
celestial
body
Japanese (with literal translation of symbols)
planet name day of week
1 Sun 太陽 (sun) 日曜日 (day-celestial body-day)
2 Moon (moon) 月曜日 (moon-celestial body-day)
3 Mars 火星 (fire-star) 火曜日 (fire-celestial body-day)
4 Mercury 水星 (water-star) 水曜日 (water-celestial body-day)
5 Jupiter 木星 (wood-star) 木曜日 (wood-celestial body-day)
6 Venus 金星 (gold-star) 金曜日 (gold-celestial body-day)
7 Saturn 土星 (earth-star) 土曜日 (earth-celestial body-day)

Aristotle

Natural vs. violent motion

Four elements: earth, water, air, fire.

Quintessence — the fifth element. The stuff in the sky is different, better, than the crummy corruptible junk on the Earth, therefore it must follow the perfect path — a circle.

For the perfect is naturally prior to the imperfect, and the circle is a perfect thing. This cannot be said of any straight line:-not of an infinite line for, if it were perfect, it would have a limit and an end: nor of any finite line for in every case there is something beyond it, since any finite line can be extended. And so, since the prior movement belongs to the body which naturally prior, and circular movement is prior to straight, and movement in a straight line belongs to simple bodies-fire moving straight upward and earthy bodies straight downward towards the center - since this is so, it follows that circular movement also must be the movement of some simple body.

Aristotle, ca 350 BCE


Through the Gateway

I stared at the carvings of the causeway for a long while, as series of numbers spilled out of my head. I tried to find astronomical solution in every number imagined in the sculpture: the number of mythical serpent’s heads, of elephants’ fangs and trunks, of the faces illustrated on the South Gate. Then I multiplied, divided and subtracted the collective results. In the end, I lost my strength. I don’t have such a head for mathematics as the ancients did …

Finally, tired with my own thoughts, I decided to enter the gateway. Standing in front of the huge gopura, I looked up at the carved faces they had their still and narrow eyes gazing in the four cardinal points. Suddenly, a scene from my childhood movie came to my mind. In Never Ending Story, the main character, Atreyu, walks through the Sphinx Gate, and when he is losing his confidence, the eyes of the stone colossi get alive and are slowly opening to strike him with their deadly rays. Although I did not feel confident at that time either, I gathered all my courage and walked through the gateway. Bodhisattvas’ eyes remained focused and unblinking.

After a while I found myself in the citadel covered with a damp equatorial forest (Pałkiewicz 2007:136). I had the impression that everything came alive there sounds of birds were heard in the air, heavy drops of rain fell on the undergrowth and trickles of water flowed from the branches of trees here and there (Ibid.:136). It was the result of heavy rains that rolled through Angkor at dawn. In November, the end of the rainy season still made itself felt. But it was a warm, refreshing rain. The late morning slowly gave way to a sunny day making Angkor Tom’s fragrances and colours more intensive (Ibid.:136). I had entered the kingdom of myths and art but also of astronomy and mathematics.

Featured image: South Gate with the aligned row of Devas along the causeway. Source: Free photo at Pixabay (2016).

By Joanna
Faculty of History of Art and Archaeology
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, Poland
University College Dublin, Ireland

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