Astronomy

Whereabouts of the Pleiades

Whereabouts of the Pleiades


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I assume they should be in the Milky Way galaxy. I have read about it a little but did not find information on where they are.

Which galaxy do the Pleiades belong to?


With the exception of the Andromeda galaxy and the Magellanic clouds1, every star, star cluster and nebula that is visible to the naked eye is part of the Milky Way. The Pleiades is a star cluster in the Milky Way.

Objects in other galaxies are too far and too dim to be visible with the naked eye.

1The Triangulum galaxy (M33) may also be visible to the naked eye from a dark site to trained observers with excellent vision


To give you a perspective the Milky Way Galaxy is between 150,000 and 200,000 light years in across. The Pleiades is less than 450 light years from Earth. In a galactic perspective the Pleiades is incredibly close to us and so clearly within the Milky Way Galaxy.


This screen grab from the program Where is M13? shows the location of the Sun and Pleiades in our galaxy.

The Sun is the orange dot, the Pleiades the yellow dot.


Seven Celestial Sisters Rule the Sky

In the story Top 10 Cool Things in the Sky, you get a sneak peek at a little star cluster that is famous the world over. It's called "The Pleiades" and makes its best appearance in the night skies from late November to through March each year. In November, they're up from dusk to dawn.

This star cluster has been observed from nearly every part of our planet, and everyone from amateur astronomers with small telescopes to astronomers using Hubble Space Telescope has taken a shot of it.

Many of the world's cultures and religions focus on the Pleiades. These stars have had many names and show up on clothing, flats, pottery, and artwork. The name we know these stars by now comes from the ancient Greeks, who saw them as a group of woman who was companions to the goddess Artemis. The seven brightest stars of the Pleiades are named after these women: Maia, Electra, Taygete, Alcyone, Celaeno, Sterope, and Merope.


Bound by an Unseen Force

The Job passage is fascinating. We hear an amazing claim. The writers say that the stars which make up the Pleiades are bound together, and that the stars in Orion’s belt are drifting apart.

What a claim for some really imaginative bronze aged sheep herders to make. The truth is, they were right.

Science has confirmed that all of the stars in the Pleiades cluster are bound through gravitational attraction. As many as 250 different stars are part of the group. Every single one of them moving in the same trajectory, bound together by gravity so tightly that scientists don’t believe they will ever drift apart.


Astronomy Picture of the Day

Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer.

2020 September 9
Pleiades: The Seven Sisters Star Cluster
Image Credit & Copyright: Raul Villaverde Fraile

Explanation: Have you ever seen the Pleiades star cluster? Even if you have, you probably have never seen it as large and clear as this. Perhaps the most famous star cluster on the sky, the bright stars of the Pleiades can be seen without binoculars from even the depths of a light-polluted city. With a long exposure from a dark location, though, the dust cloud surrounding the Pleiades star cluster becomes very evident. The featured exposure covers a sky area several times the size of the full moon. Also known as the Seven Sisters and M45, the Pleiades lies about 400 light years away toward the constellation of the Bull (Taurus). A common legend with a modern twist is that one of the brighter stars faded since the cluster was named, leaving only six of the sister stars visible to the unaided eye. The actual number of Pleiades stars visible, however, may be more or less than seven, depending on the darkness of the surrounding sky and the clarity of the observer's eyesight.


Origin / Mythology

As obvious as the Pleiades are, it should come as no surprise that ancient societies worldwide recognized the cluster and wove it into their cultures — sometimes describing six stars, sometimes seven. In fact, ancient humans (probably) depicted the Pleiades in cave paintings at Lascaux, France, representing the cluster as a series of painted dots near a large bull, which is presumably Taurus. The earliest written reference, however, is likely a Chinese record dating to 2300 BC.

Ancient humans might have depicted the Pleiades in the Lascaux cave paints in southern France. Spots that might represent the Seven Sisters appear over the shoulder of the bull.
French Ministry of Culture

The Pleiades also appear three times in the Bible, once in the book of Amos (“Seek him that maketh the seven stars. . .”), and also twice in the book of Job: (“Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades. . .”)

The cluster’s modern name, however, is Greek — along with the “Seven Sisters” nickname, and the names of the most prominent stars: Electra, Taygete, Maia, Celaeno, Alcyone, Sterope, and Merope. In Greek lore, these seven sisters were the daughters of Atlas and Pleione. The Pleiades name is derived from the name of the mother, Pleione, which in turn probably means “sailing” or “many/plenty.” The sailing reference might refer to the helical rising of the Pleiades, which coincided with fine nautical weather in the Mediterranean. In Homer’s Odyssey (700 B.C.), the hero Odysseus uses the Pleiades as a navigational beacon:

“. . .gladly did [Odysseus] spread his sail before [the wind], while he sat and guided the raft skillfully by means of the rudder. He never closed his eyes, but kept them fixed on the Pleiades. . .

Several native North American groups also conceived of the Pleiades as a group of women, but other legends abound.

Another common concept held the Pleiades to be birds. In rural European areas for example, the cluster was often called “The Hen” or “The Hen with Her Chicks.” Some European cultures and Native Americans alike saw the Pleiades as being a hole that showed the light from the heavens.


Introduction

Throughout the Early World, numerous stories were told about a visiting ‘star-god’ and, sometimes, his companions. This being was known by a variety of names but his description and the stories told about him was always the same. The Egyptians called him Osiris and they hoped to be united with him in the Afterlife. The Ancients linked him with the Pleiades stars, which regulated many early calendars, and which some people claimed to be the origin of all life. Many early temples, pyramids, and religious sites, were aligned to the rising, and setting, of the Pleiades and this event heralded a new beginning or the end of an era. The star-god religion provides answers to many of the unsolved mysteries of the Ancient World such as the meaning of Egypt’s Great Pyramid, why one particular number has been sacred for thousands of years and what was behind the hundreds of stories told about the Great Flood. This is explained in Leonard Farra’s book The Pleiades Legacy (The Old World) can be purchased Online from Blurb.Com.


Pleiades

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Pleiades, (catalog number M45), open cluster of young stars in the zodiacal constellation Taurus, about 440 light-years from the solar system. It contains a large amount of bright nebulous material and more than 1,000 stars, of which six or seven can be seen by the unaided eye and have figured prominently in the myths and literature of many cultures. In Greek mythology the Seven Sisters ( Alcyone, Maia, Electra, Merope, Taygete, Celaeno, and Sterope, names now assigned to individual stars), daughters of Atlas and Pleione, were changed into the stars. The heliacal (near dawn) rising of the Pleiades in spring of the Northern Hemisphere has marked from ancient times the opening of seafaring and farming seasons, as the morning setting of the group in autumn signified the seasons’ ends. Some South American Indians use the same word for “Pleiades” and “year.”

The cluster was first examined telescopically by Galileo, who found more than 40 members. It was first photographed by Paul and Prosper Henry in 1885.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen, Senior Editor.


The History of the Pleiades

from p.391-412 of Star Names, Richard Hinckley Allen, 1889.

The seven sweet Pleiades above.

The group of sister stars, which mothers love

To show their wondering babes, the gentle Seven.

the Narrow Cloudy Train of Female Stars of Manilius, and the Starry Seven, Old Atlas’ Children, of Keats’ Endymion, have everywhere been among the most noted objects in the history, poetry, and mythology of the heavens though, as Aratos wrote,

Holds all, and they themselves are dim to see.

All literature contains frequent allusions to them, and in late years they probably have been more attentively and scientifically studied than any other group.

They generally have been located on the shoulder of the Bull as we have them, but Hyginus, considering the animal figure complete, placed them on the hind quarter Nicander, Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, on the tail,

In cauda Tauri septem quas appellavere Vergilias —

although Pliny also is supposed to have made a distinct constellation of them. Proclus and Geminos said that they were on the back and others, on the neck, which Bayard Taylor followed in his Hymn to Taurus, where they

Cluster like golden bees upon thy mane.

Eratosthenes, describing them as over the animal, imitated Homer and Hesiod in his Pleias while Aratos, calling them, in the Attic dialect, Pleiades, placed them near the knees of Perseus thus, as in most of his poem, following Eudoxos, whose sphere, it is said, clearly showed them in that spot. Hipparchos in the main coincided with this, giving them as Pleias and Pleiades but Ptolemy used the word in the singular for four of the stars, and did not separate them from Taurus. The Arabians and Jews put them on the rump of Aries and the Hindu astronomers, on the head of the Bull, where we now see the Hyades.

The Pleiades seem to be among the first stars mentioned in astronomical literature, appearing in Chinese annals of 2357 B.C., Alcyone, the lucida, then being near the vernal equinox, although now 24° north of the celestial equator and in the Hindu lunar zodiac as the 1st nakshatra, Krittika [Allen notes: The Krittikas were the six nurses of Skanda, the infant god of war, represented by the planet Mars, literally motherless, who took to himself six heads for his better nourishment, and his nurses’ name in Karttikeya, Son of the Krittikas.]Karteek, or Kartiguey, the General of the Celestial Armies, probably long before 1730 B.C., when precession carried the equinoctial point into Aries. Al Biruni, referring to this early position of the equinox in the Pleiades, which he found noticed “in some books of Hermes,” wrote: This statement must have been made about 3000 years and more before Alexander.

And their beginning the astronomical year gave rise to the title “the Great Year of the Pleiades” for the cycle of precession of about 25,900 years.

The Hindus pictured these stars as a Flame typical of Agni, the god of fire and regent of the asterism, and it may have been in allusion to this figuring that the western Hindus held in the Pleiad month Kartik (October-November) their great star-festival Dibali, the Feast of Lamps, which gave origin to the present Feast of Lanterns of Japan. But they also drew them, and not incorrectly, as a Razor with a short handle, the radical word in their title, kart, signifying “to cut.”

The Santals of Bengal called them Sar en and the Turks, Ulgher.

As a Persian lunar station they were Perv, Perven, Pervis, Parvig, or Parviz, although a popular title was Peren, and a poetical one, Parur. In the Rubais, or Rubdiyat, of the poet-astronomer Omar Khayyam, the tent-maker of Naishapur in 1123, “who stitched the tents of science,” they were Parwin, the Parven of that country to-day and, similarly, with the Khorasmians and Sogdians, Parvi and Parur — all these from Peru, the Begetters, as beginning all things, probably with reference to their beginning the year.

In China they were worshiped by girls and young women as the Seven Sisters of Industry, while as the 1st sieu (Moon Mansion) they were Mao, Mau, or Maou, anciently Mol, The Constellation, and Gang, of unknown signification, Alcyone being the determinant.

On the Euphrates, with the Hyades, they seem to have been Mastabbagalgalla, the Great Twins of the ecliptic, Castor and Pollux (Gemini) being the same in the zodiac.

In the 5th century before Christ Euripides mentioned them with Aetos, our Altair, as nocturnal timekeepers and Sappho, a century previously, marked the middle of the night by their setting. Centuries still earlier Hesiod and Homer brought them into their most beautiful verse the former calling them Atlagenes, Atlas-born. The patriarch Job is thought to refer to them twice in his word Kimah, a Cluster, or Heap, which the Hebrew herdsman-prophet Amos, probably contemporary with Hesiod, also used the prophet’s term being translated “the seven stars” in our Authorized Version, but “Pleiades” in the Revised. The similar Babylonian-Assyrian Kimtu, or Kimmatu, signifies a “Family Group,” for which the Syrians had Kima, quoted in Humboldt’s Cosmos as Gemat this most natural simile is repeated in Seneca’s Medea as densos Pleiadum greges. Manilius had Glomerabile Sidus, the Rounded Asterism, equivalent to the Globus Pleiadum of Valerius Flaccus while Brown translates the Pleiades of Aratos as the Flock of Clusterers.

In Milton’s description of the Creation it is said of the sun that

the gray Dawn and the Pleiades before him danced,

the original of these last words being taken by the poet from the Book of Job, xxxviii, 31, in the Authorized Version, that some have thought an astrological reference to the Pleiades as influencing the fortunes of mankind, or to their presumed influential position as the early leaders of the Lunar Mansions. The Revised Version, however, renders them “cluster,” and the Septuagint by the Greek word for “band,” as if uniting the members of the group into a fillet others translate it as “girdle,” a conception of their figure seen in Amr al Kais’ contribution to the Muallakat, translated by Sir William Jones:

It was the hour when the Pleiades appeared in the firmament like the folds of a silken sash variously decked with gems.

Von Herder gave Job’s verse as:

Canst thou bind together the brilliant Pleiades ?

Canst thou not arrange together the rosette of diamonds of the Pleiades ?

and Hafiz wrote to a friend:

To thy poems Heaven affixes the Pearl Rosette of the Pleiades as a seal of immortality.

An opening rose also was a frequent Eastern simile while in Sadi’s Gulistan, the Rose-garden, we read:

The ground was as if strewn with pieces of enamel, and rows of Pleiades seemed to hang on the branches of the trees

as though the tops of the trees were encircled by the necklace of the Pleiades.

William Roscoe Thayer repeated the Persian thought in his Halid:

Dropt like dew from bough to bough of the cinnamon trees.

That all these wrote better than they knew is graphically shown by Miss Clerke where, alluding to recent photographs of the cluster by the Messrs. Henry of Paris, she says:

The most curious of these was the threading together of stars by filmy processes. In one case seven aligned stars appeared strung on a nebulous filament “like beads on a rosary.” The “rows of stars,” so often noticed in the sky, may therefore be concluded to have more than an imaginary existence.

The title, written also Pliades and, in the singular, Plias, has commonly been derived from plein “to sail,” for the heliacal rising of the group in May marked the opening of navigation to the Greeks, as its setting in the late autumn did the close. But this probably was an afterthought, and a better derivation is from pleios, the Epic form of pleos, “full,” or, in the plural, “many,” a very early astronomical treatise by an unknown Christian writer having Plyades a pluralitate. This coincides with the biblical Kimah and the Arabic word for them — Al Thurayya. But as Pleione was the mother of the seven sisters, it would seem still more probable that from her name our title originated.

Some of the poets, among them Athenaeus, Hesiod, Pindar, and Simonides, likening the stars to Rock-pigeons flying from the Hunter Orion, wrote the word Peleiades, which, although perhaps done partly for metrical reasons, again shows the intimate connection in early legend of this group with a flock of birds. When these had left the earth they were turned into the Pleiad stars. Aeschylus assigned the daughters’ pious grief at their father’s (Atlas) labor in bearing the world as the cause of their transformation and subsequent transfer to the heavens but he thought these Peleiades apteroi, “wingless.” Other versions made them the Seven Doves that carried ambrosia to the infant Zeus, one of the flock being crushed when passing between the Symplegades, although the god filled up the number again. This probably originated in that of the dove which helped Argo through Homer telling us in the Odyssey that

No bird of air, no dove of swiftest wing,

That bears ambrosia to the ethereal king,

Shuns the dire rocks in vain she cuts the skies,

The dire rocks meet and crush her as she flies

and the doves on Nestor’s cup described in the Iliad have been supposed to refer to the Pleiades. Yet some have prosaically asserted that this columbine title is merely from the loosing of pigeons in the auspices customary at the opening of navigation. These stories may have given rise to the Sicilians’ Seven Dovelets, the Sette Palommielle of the Pentameron.

Another title analogous to the foregoing is Butrum from Isidorus, — Caesius wrongly writing it Brutum, — in the mediaeval Latin for Botrus, a Bunch of Grapes, to which the younger Theon likened them. It is a happy simile, although Thompson [Allen notes: He traces the word back as equivalent to oinas, a Dove, probably Columba oenas of Old World ornithology, and so named from its purple-red breast like wine, — oinos, and naturally referred to a bunch of grapes or perhaps because the bird appeared in migration at the time of the vintage. This is strikingly confirmed by the fact that coins of Mallos in Cilicia bore doves with bodies formed by bunches of grapes these coins being succeeded by others bearing grapes alone and we often see the bird and fruit still associated in early Christian symbolism.] considers it merely another avian association like that seen in the poetical Peleiades and the Alcyone of the lucida.

Vergiliae and Sidus Vergiliarum have always been common for the cluster as rising after Ver, the Spring, — the Breeches Bible having this marginal note at its word “Pleiades” in the Book of Job, xxxviii, 31:

which starres arise when the sunne is in Taurus which is the spring time and bring flowers.

And these names obtained from the times of the Latin poets to the 18th century, but often erroneously written Virgiliae. Pliny, describing the glow-worms, designated them as stellae and likened them to the Pleiades:

Behold here before your very feet are your Vergiliae of that constellation are they the offspring.

And the much quoted lines in Locksley Hall are similar:

Many a night I saw the Pleiads, rising through the mellow shade, Glitter like a swarm of fire-flies tangled in a silver braid.

Bayer cited Signatricia Lumina.

Hesiod called them the Seven Virgins and the Virgin Stars Vergil, the Eoae Atlantides Milton, the Seven Atlantic Sisters and Hesperides, the title for another batch of Atlas’ daughters from Hesperis, has been applied to them. Chaucer, in the Hous of Fame, had Atlantes doughtres sevene but his “Sterres sevene” refer to the planets. As the Seven Sisters they are familiar to all and as the Seven Stars they occur in various early Bible versions in the Sifunsterri of the Anglo-Saxons, though they also wrote Pliade in the Septistellium vestis institoris, cited by Bayer and in the modern German Siebengestirn. This numerical title also frequently has been applied to the brightest stars of the Greater Bear (Ursa Major), as in early days it was to the “seven planets,” — the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Minsheu had the words” Seven Starres “indiscriminately for the Pleiades, Hyades, and Ursa Major, saying, as to the first,” that appear in a cluster about midheaven.”

As the group outline is not unlike that of the Dipper in Ursa Major, many think that they much more deserve the name Little Dipper than do the seven stars in Ursa Minor indeed that name is not uncommon for them. And even in our 6th century, with Hesychios, they were Satilla, a Chariot, or Wagon, another well-known figure for Ursa Major.

Ideler mentioned a popular designation by his countrymen, — Schiffahrts Gestirn, the Sailors’ Stars, — peculiarly appropriate from the generally supposed derivation of their Greek title and meteorological character of 2000 years ago but the Tables of some Obscure Word is of King James I anticipated this in “Seamens Starres the seaven starres.”

The Teutons had Seulainer the Gaels, Griglean, Grioglachan, and Meanmnach the Hungarians, who, Grimm says, have originated 280 native names for stars, called the Pleiades Fiastik and Heteveny, — this last in Finland Hete wane the Lapps of Norway knew them as Niedgierreg while the same people in Sweden had the strange Suttjenes Rauko, Fur in Frost, these seven stars covering a servant turned out into the cold by his master. The Finns and Lithuanians likened them to a Sieve with holes in it and some of the French peasantry to a Mosquito Net, Cousiniere, — in the Languedoc tongue Cousigneiros. The Russians called them Baba, the Old Wife and the Poles, Baby, the Old Wives.

As we have seen the Hyades likened to a Boar Throng, so we find with Hans Egede, the first Norse missionary to Greenland, 1721-34, that this sister group was the Killukturset of that country, Dogs baiting a bear and similarly in Wales, Y twr tewdws, the Close Pack.

Weigel included them among his heraldic constellations as the Multiplication Table, a coat of arms for the merchants.

Sancho Panza visited them, in his aerial voyage on Clavileno Aligero, as las Siete Cabrillas, the Seven Little Nanny Goats and la Racchetta, the Battledore, is a familiar and happy simile in Italy but the astronomers of that country now know them as Plejadi, and those of Germany as Plejaden.

The Rabbis are said to have called them Sukkoth Renoth, usually translated “the Booths of the Maidens” or “the Tents of the Daughters,” and the Standard Dictionary still cites this supposed Hebrew title but Riccioli reversed it as Filiae Tabernaculi. All this, however, seems to be erroneous, as is well explained in the Speakers Commentary on the 2d Book of the Kings xvii, 30, where the words are shown to be intended for the Babylonian goddess Zarbanit, Zirat-banit, or Zir-pa-nit, the wife of Bel Marduk. The Alfonsine Tables say that the “Babylonians,” by whom were probably meant the astrologers, knew them as Atorage, evidently their word for the manzil Al Thurayya, the Many Little Ones, a diminutive form of Tharwan, Abundance, which Al Biruni assumed to be either from their appearance, or from the plenty produced in the pastures and crops by the attendant rains. We see this title in Bayer’s Athoraie in Chilmead’s Atauria quasi Taurinae and otherwise distorted in every late mediaeval work on astronomy. Riccioli, commenting on these in his Almagestum Novum, wrote Arabice non Athoraiae vel Atarage sed Altorieh sen Benat Elnasch, hoc est filiae congregationis the first half of which may be correct enough, but the Benat, etc., singularly confounded the Pleiad stars with those of Ursa Major. In his Astronomia Reformata he cited Athorace and Altorich from Aben Ragel. Turanya is another form, which Hewitt says is from southern Arabia, where they were likened to a Herd of Camels with the star Capella as the driver.

A special Arabic name for them was Al Najm, the Constellation par excellence, and they may be the Star, or the Star of piercing brightness, referred to by Muhammad in the 53d and 86th Suras of the Kuran, and versified from the latter by Sir Edwin Arnold in his At Hafiz, the Preserver:

By the sky and the night star’

By Al Tarik the white star!

When darkness covers man and beast —

the planet Venus being intended by Al Tarik. Grimm cited the similar Syryan Voykodzyun, the Night Star.

They shared the watery character always ascribed to the Hyades, as is shown in Statius’ Pliadum nivosum sidus and Valerius Flaccus distinctly used the word “Pliada” for the showers, as perhaps did Statius in his Pliada movere while Josephus states, among his very few stellar allusions, that during the investment of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes, 170 B.C., the besieged suffered from want of water, but were finally relieved “by a large shower of rain which fell at the setting of the Pleiades.” In the same way they are intimately connected with traditions of the Flood found among so many and widely separated nations, and especially in the Deluge-myth of Chaldaea. Yet with all this well established reputation, we read in the Works and Days:

When with their domes the slow-paced snails retreat,

Beneath some foliage, from the burning heat

Of the Pleiades, your tools prepare.

They were a marked object on the Nile, at one time probably called Chu or Chow, and supposed to represent the goddess Nit or Neith, the Shuttle, one of the principal divinities of Lower Egypt, identified by the Greeks with Athene, the Roman Minerva. Hewitt gives another title from that country, Athurai, the Stars of Athyr (Hathor), very similar to the Arabic word for them and Professor Charles Piazzi Smyth suggests that the seven chambers of the Great Pyramid commemorate these seven stars.

Grecian temples were oriented to them, or to their lucida those of Athene on the Acropolis of different dates, to their correspondingly different positions when rising. These were the temple of 1530 B.C. the Hecatompedon of 1150 B.C. and the great Parthenon, finished on the same site 438 B.C. The temple of Bacchus at Athens, 1030 B.C., looked toward their setting, as did the Asclepieion at Epidaurus, 1275 B.C., and the temple at Sunium of 845 B.C. While at some unknown date, perhaps contemporaneous with these Grecian structures, they were pictured in the New World on the walls of a Palenque temple upon a blue background and certainly were a well-known object in other parts of Mexico, for Cortez heard there, in 1519, a very ancient tradition of the destruction of the world in some past age at their midnight culmination.

A common figure for these stars, everywhere popular for many centuries, is that of a Hen with her Chickens, — another instance of the constant association of the Pleiades with flocking birds, and here especially appropriate from their compact grouping. Aben Ragel and other Hebrew writers thus mentioned them, sometimes with the Coop that held them, — the Massa Gallinae of the Middle Ages these also appearing in Arabic folk-lore, and still current among the English peasantry. In modern Greece, as the Hencoop, they are Poulia or Pouleia, not unlike the word of ancient Greece. Miles Coverdale, the translator in 1535 of the first complete English Bible, had as a marginal note to the passage in the Book of Job:

these vii starres, the clock henne with her chickens

and Riccioli, in his Almagestum Novum:

Germanice Bruthean: Anglice Butrio id est gallina fovens pullos.

We see in the foregoing the Butrum of Isidorus, Riccioli’s great predecessor in the Church. The German farm laborers call them Gluck Henne the Russian, Nasedha, the Sitting Hen the Danes, Aften Hoehne, the Eve Hen while in Wallachia they are the Golden Cluck Hen and her five Chicks. In Serbia a Girl is added in charge of the brood, probably the star Alcyone, Maia appropriately taking her place as the Mother. The French and Italians designate them, in somewhat the same way, as Pulsiniere, Poussiniere, and Gallinelle, the Pullets, Riccioli’s Gallinella. Aborigines of Africa and Borneo had similar ideas about them. Pliny’s translator Holland called them the Broodhen star Vergiliae.

Savage tribes knew the Pleiades familiarly, as well as did the people of ancient and modern civilization and Ellis wrote of the natives of the Society and Tonga Islands, who called these stars Matarii, the Little Eyes:

The two seasons of the year were divided by the Pleiades the first, Matarii i nia, the Pleiades Above, commenced when, in the evening, those stars appeared on the horizon, and continued while, after sunset, they were above. The other season, Matarii i raro, the Pleides Below, began when, at sunset, they ceased to be visible, and continued till, in the evening, they appeared again above the horizon.

Gill gives a similar story from the Hervey group, where the Little Eyes are Matariki, and at one time but a single star, so bright that their god Tane in envy got hold of Aumea, our Aldebaran, and, accompanied by Mere, our Sirius, chased the offender, who took refuge in a stream. Mere, however, drained off the water, and Tane hurled Aumea at the fugitive, breaking him into the six pieces that we now see, whence the native name for the fragments, Tauono, the Six, quoted by Flammarion as Tau, both titles singularly like the Latin Taurus. They were the favorite one of the various avelas, or guides at sea in night voyages from one island to another and, as opening the year, objects of worship down to 1857, when Christianity prevailed throughout these islands. The Australians thought of them as Young Girls playing to Young Men dancing, — the Belt stars of Orion some of our Indians, as Dancers and the Solomon Islanders as Togo ni samu, a Company of Maidens. The Abipones of the Paraguay River country consider them their great Spirit Groaperikie, or Grandfather and in the month of May, on the reappearance of the constellation, they welcome their Grandfather back with joyful shouts, as if he had recovered from sickness, with the hymn, “What thanks do we owe thee ! And art thou returned at last ? Ah ! thou hast happily recovered!” and then proceed with their festivities in honor of the Pleiades’ reappearance.

Among other South American tribes they were Cajupal, the Six Stars.

The pagan Arabs, according to Hafiz, fixed here the seat of immortality as did the Berbers, or Kabyles, of northern Africa, and, widely separated from them, the Dyaks of Borneo all thinking them the central point of the universe, and long anticipating Wright in 1750 and Madler in 1846, and, perhaps, Lucretius in the century before Christ.

Miss Clerke, in a charming and instructive chapter in her System of the Stars which should be read by every star-lover, tells us that: With November, the “Pleiad-month,” many primitive people began their year and on the day of the midnight culmination of the Pleiades, November 17, no petition was presented in vain to the ancient Kings of Persia the same event gave the signal at Busiris for the commencement of the feast of Isis, and regulated less immediately the celebration connected with the fifty-two-year cycle of the Mexicans. Australian tribes to this day dance in honor of the “Seven Stars,” because “they are very good to the black fellows.” The Abipones of Brazil regard them with pride as their ancestors. Elsewhere, the origin of fire and the knowledge of rice-culture are traced to them. They are the “hoeing-stars” of South Africa, take the place of a farming-calendar to the Solomon Islanders, and their last visible rising after sunset is, or has been, celebrated with rejoicings all over the southern hemisphere as betokening the “waking-up time” to agricultural activity.

They also were a sign to ancient husbandmen as to the seeding-time Vergil alluding to this in his 1st Georgic, thus rendered by May:

Some that before the fall ‘oth’ Pleiades

Began to sowe, deceaved in the increase,

Have reapt wilde oates for wheate.

And, many centuries before him, Hesiod said that their appearance from the sun indicated the approach of harvest, and their setting in autumn the time for the new sowing while Aristotle wrote that honey was never gathered before their rising. Nearly all classical poets and prose writers made like reference to them.

Mommsen found in their rising, from the 21st to the 25th of the Attic month Thargelion, May-June, the occasion for the prehistoric festival Plunteria, Athene’s Clothes-washing, at the beginning of the corn harvest, and the date for the annual election of the Achaeans while Drach surmised that their midnight culmination in the time of Moses, ten days after the autumnal equinox, may have fixed the day of atonement on the 10th of Tishri. Their rising in November marked the time for worship of deceased friends by many of the original races of the South, — a custom also seen with more civilized peoples, notably among the Parsis and Sabaeans, as also in the Druids’ midnight rites of the 1st of November while a recollection of it is found in the three holy days of our time, All Hallow Eve, All Saints’ Day, and All Souls’ Day.

Hippocrates made much of the Pleiades, dividing the year into four seasons, all connected with their positions in relation to the sun his winter beginning with their setting and ending with the spring equinox spring lasting till their rising the summer, from their appearing to the rising of Arcturus and the autumn, till their setting again. And Caesar made their heliacal rising begin the Julian summer, and their cosmical setting the commencement of winter. In classic lore the Pleiades were the heavenly group chosen with the sun by Jove to manifest his power in favor of Atreus by causing them to move from east to west.

Notwithstanding, however, all that we read so favorable to the high regard in which these stars were held, they were considered by the astrologers as portending blindness and accidents to sight, a reputation shared with all other clusters. The Arabs, especially, thought their forty days’ disappearance in the sun’s rays was the occasion of great harm to mankind, and Muhammad wrote that “when the star rises all harm rises from the earth.” But Hippocrates had differently written in his Epidemics, a thousand years before, of the connection of the Pleiades with the weather, and of their influence on diseases of autumn:

until the season of the Pleiades, and at the approach of winter, many ardent fevers set in

in autumn, and under the Pleiades, again there died great numbers.

Although the many legends of their origin are chiefly from Mediterranean countries, yet the Teutonic nations have a very singular one associated with our Savior. It says that once, when passing by a baker’s shop, and attracted by the odor of newly baked bread, He asked for a loaf but being refused by the baker, was secretly supplied by the wife and six daughters standing by. In reward they were placed in the sky as the Seven Stars, while the baker became a cuckoo and so long as he sings in the spring, from Saint Tiburtius’ Day, April 14th, to Saint John’s Day, June 24th, his wife and daughters are visible. Following this story, the Pleiades are the Gaelic Crannarain, the Baker’s Peel, or Shovel, a title shared with Ursa Major.

Another, still homelier, but appropriately feminine, name is hinted at in Holland’s translation from the Historia Naturalis, where Pliny treats of “the star Vergiliae”:

So evident in the heaven, and easiest to be known of all others, it is called by the name of a garment hanging out at a Broker’s shop.

Those who have traced out the origin of the title Petticoat Lane for the well-known London street will recognize what Pliny had in mind.

In various ages their title has been taken for noteworthy groups of seven in philosophy or literature. This we see first in the Philosophical Pleiad of 620 to 550 B.C., otherwise known as the Seven Wise Men of Greece, or the Seven Sages, generally given as Bias, Chilo, Cleobulus, Epimenides or Periander, Pittacus, Solon, and the astronomer Thales again in the Alexandrian Literary Pleiad, or the Tragic Pleiades, instituted in the 3rd century B.C. by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and composed of the seven contemporary poets, variously given, but often as Apollonius of Rhodes, Callimachus or Philiscus, Homer the Younger of Hierapolis in Caria, Lycophron, Nicander, Theocritus, and our Aratos in the Literary Pleiad of Charlemagne, himself one of the Seven in the Great Pleiade of France, of the 16th century, brought together in the reign of Henri III, some say by Ronsard, the “Prince of Poets,” others by d’Aurat, or Dorat, the “Modern Pindar,” called “Auratus,” either in punning allusion to his name or from the brilliancy of his genius, and the “Dark Star,” from his silence among his companions and in the Lesser Pleiade, of inferior lights, in the subsequent reign of Louis XIII. Lastly appear the Pleiades of Connecticut, the popular, perhaps ironical, designation for the seven patriotic poets after our Revolutionary War: Richard Alsop, Joel Barlow, Theodore Dwight, Timothy Dwight, Lemuel Hopkins, David Humphreys, and John Trumbull, — all good men of Yale.

I have not been able to learn when, and by whom, the titles of the seven sisters were applied to the individual stars as we have them but now they are catalogued nine in all, the parents being included. These last, however, seem to be a comparatively modern addition, the first mention of them that I find — in Riccioli’s Almagestum Novium of 1651 — reading:

Michael Florentius Langrenius illarum exactam figuram observavit, & ad me misit, in qua additae sunt duae Stellae alus innominatae, quas ipse vocal Atlantem, & Pleionem nescio an sint illae, quas Vendelinus ait observari tanquam novas, quia modo apparent, modo latent.

The Harleian Manuscript of Cicero’s the Greek astronomer Aratus, circa 270 B.C., represents the Sisters by plain female heads under the title VII Pliades et Athlantides, and individually as Merope, Alcyone, Celaeno, Electra, Taygete, Sterope, and Maia. [Other names, too, were assigned to the mythological septette the scholiast on Theocritus giving them as Coccymo, Plancia, Protis, Parthemia, Lampatho, Stonychia, and the familiar Maia.] Dutch scholar Grotius (1583-1645) has them in the same way, but in far more attractive style, from the old Leyden Manuscript, where we find the orthography Asterope and Mea, the former of which, appearing with Germanicus, has become common in our day. The German manuscript, dating from the 15th century, shows seven full-length figures, the Dark Sister smaller than the others, and wearing a dark-blue head-dress, the rest brighter in color, with faces of true German type.

While this list includes all the named Pleiad stars, some practically invisible without optical aid, yet every increase of power reveals a larger number. The Italian astronomer Riccioli wrote about this in 1651:

“Telescopio autem spectatae visae sunt Galileo plus quam 40. ut narratur in Nuncio Sidereo”

a first-rate field-glass, taking in 3¼° and magnifying seven diameters, shows 57 Hooke, in 1664, saw 78 with the best telescope of his day Swift sees 300 with his 4 ½-inch, and 600 with his 16-inch and Wolf catalogued, at the Paris Observatory in 1876, 625 in a space of 90′ by 135′. But with the camera the Messrs. Henry photographed 1421 in 1885, and two years later, by a four-hours’ exposure, 2326 down to the 16th magnitude within three square degrees,— more than are visible at any one time by the naked eye in the whole sky. And a recent photograph by Bailey, with the Bruce telescope, reveals 3972 stars in the region 2° square around Alcyone although there is no certainty that all of these belong to the Pleiades group. Statements as to their magnitudes and distances make many of them exceed Sirius in size, and to be 250 light years away but these are based upon an assumption of parallax as yet only hypothetical. But, if correct, how appropriate are Young’s verses in his Night Thoughts:

“How distant some of these nocturnal Suns!

So distant (says the Sage) ’twere not absurd

To doubt, if Beams set out at Nature’s Birth,

Are yet arrived at this so foreign World

Tho’ nothing half so rapid as their Flight”

and Longfellow’s stanza in his Ode to Charles Sumner

Were a star quenched on high,

For ages would its light, Still travelling downward from the sky,

Shine on our mortal sight.

While some of these undoubtedly are only optically connected with the true Pleiades, yet the larger part seem to form a more or less united group, which the spectroscope shows to be of the same general type this fact being first brought out by Harvard observers in 1886, from comparisons of the spectra of forty of its stars. They are supposed to be drifting together toward the south-southwest, and so may be called a natural constellation.

Nicander wrote of them as (Greek) olizonas, “the smaller ones” Manilius (1st century A.D.), as tertia forma, “the third-sized” and many think that the light of some has decreased, not only from the legends of the Lost Pleiad and the fact that some of the sisters’ names are applied to stars which could not possibly have been seen by the unaided eye, but also because only six are now visible to the average observer, and whoever can see seven can as readily see at least two more. Miss Airy counted twelve Mr. Dawes, thirteen and Kepler said that his scholar Michel Mostlin could distinguish fourteen, and had correctly mapped eleven before the invention of the telescope, while others have done about as well indeed Carl von Littrow has seen sixteen. In the clear air of the tropic highlands more of the group are visible than to us in northern latitudes,— from the Harvard observing station at Arequipa, Peru, eleven being readily seen so that Willis was unconsciously right in his verses:

“the linked Pleiades Undimm’d are there, though from the sister band The fairest has gone down and South away!”

The English astronomer Smyth (1788-1865) wrote:

“If we admit the influence of variability at long periods, the seven in number may have been more distinct, so that while Homer and Attalus speak of six, Hipparchus and Aratus may properly mention seven.”

Yet we find Humboldt, in Cosmos, saying that Hipparchos (circa 160-120 B.C.) refuted the assertion of the Greek astronomer Aratus, circa 270 B.C., that only six are to be seen with the naked eye, and that

One star escaped his attention, for when the eye is attentively fixed on this constellation, on a serene and moonless night, seven stars are visible.

But the Greek astronomer Aratus’, circa 270 B.C., words do not justify this statement as to his opinion. He wrote:

“seven paths aloft men say they take,

Yet six alone are viewed by mortal eyes.

From Zeus’ abode no star unknown is lost

Since first from birth we heard,

but thus the tale is told” < p.411>this “seven paths, (Greek) eptaporoi, being first found in the (Greek) Resos (Rhesos) attributed to Euripides. Alexandrian-Greek astronomer Eratosthenes (276?-196 B.C.) called it (Greek) Pleias eptasteros, the Seven-starred Pleiad, although he described one as (Greek) Panaphanes, All-invisible Ovid (43 B.C.-18?A.D.) repeated from the Phainomena the now trite

“Quae septem dici, sex tamen esse solent”

“Six only are visible, but the seventh is beneath the dark clouds.”

Cicero thought of them in the same way and Galileo wrote Dico autem sex, quando quidem septima fere nunquam apparet. But the early Copts knew them as Exastron, the Six-starred Asterism, and many Hindu legends mention only six.

Discarding, of course, all the mythical explanations of the Lost Pleiad, I would notice some of the modern and serious attempts at an elucidation of the supposed phenomenon. Doctor Charles Anthon considered it founded solely upon the imagination, and not upon any accurate observation in antiquity. Jensen thinks that, as a favorite object in Babylonia, the astronomers of that country attached to it, with no regard to exactitude, their number of perfection or completeness, 7 playing with them a more important part even than it did among the Jews thence it descended to Greece, where, its origin being lost sight of, was caused the discrepancy which we cannot now explain, as well as the legends and folk-lore on the subject. Lamb asserted that the astronomers of Assyria could see in their sky seven stars in the group, and so described them but the Greeks, less favorably situated, finding only six, invented the story of the missing sister. The Italian astronomer Riccioli (1598-1671) propounded a theory—which I have nowhere found adopted by any later writer — that the seventh and missing Pleiad may have been a nova appearing before that number was recorded by observers, but extinguished about the date of the Trojan war this last idea accounting, too, for the association of Electra with the lost one. Still another explanation is hinted at by Thompson under Coma Berenices and the really scientific theories of the English astronomer Smyth (1788-1865) and Pickering have already been noticed. It is in these last two, I think, that the solution of this interesting question will be found, if at all and with the astronomers I would leave it, as perhaps I ought to have done before.

The second-century Greek astronomer Ptolemy mentioned Pleias for only four stars in Tauros that Baily said were Flamsteed’s 18, 19, 23, and 27, our Alcyone singularly being disregarded, as well as four others of our named stars and the 10th century Persian astronomical writer Al Sufi, who revised Ptolemy’s observations, stated that this “Alexandrian Quartette” also were the brightest in his day—the 10th century. But Ulug Beg, although he is supposed to have followed the second-century Greek astronomer Ptolemy, applied “Al Thurayya” to the five that Baily said were Fl. 19, 23, 21, 22, and 25 (Alcyone). Baily himself, editing the 17th century English orientalist Thomas Hyde’s translation of the 15th century Tartar astronomer Ulug Beg, gave only Fl. 19 and 23 as of “Al Thuraja.”

[from p.391-412 of Star Names, Richard Hinckley Allen, 1889.]

The Theoi Project is a good source of information on what has been said about the Pleiades in mythology http://www.theoi.com/Nymphe/NymphaiPleiades.html

The astrological influences of the Pleiades

According to Ptolemy they are of the nature of the Moon and Mars and, to Alvidas, of Mars, Moon and Sun in opposition. They are said to make their natives wanton, ambitious, turbulent, optimistic and peaceful to give many journeys and voyages, success in agriculture and through active intelligence and to cause blindness, disgrace and a violent death. Their influence is distinctly evil and there is no astrological warrant for the oft-quoted passage Job (xxxviii. 31) “Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades…?” which is probably a mistranslation. [Robson*, p.182.]

A note about the above: It has been said that many of the negative interpretations given by astrologers in the past to the Pleiades and other stars with feminine qualities was caused by prejudice against men with a homosexual leaning. Words like “evil influence”, as in the above case, is likely to relate to homosexuality in men, an unmentionable word in Robson’s days. Other substitutions were: “not a good omen with regard to relationships to the opposite sex”, “disgrace”, “immoral”, “evil disposition”. Homosexuality (in men) is only one of the many likely influences of the Pleiades, but not the predominant influence.

Alcyone causes love, eminence, blindness from fevers, small pox, and accidents to the face. [Robson*, p.119.]

The Pleiades gives ambition and endeavor, which gives preferment, honor and glory. Not a good omen with regard to relationships to the opposite sex. [Fixed Stars and Their Interpretation, Elsbeth Ebertin, 1928, p.26.]

The Pleiades causes bereavement, mourning, sorrows and tragedies. [The Living Stars, Dr. Eric Morse, p.39.]

Pleiades Rising: Blindness, ophthalmia injuries to the eyes and face, disgrace, wounds, stabs (operations nowadays), exile, imprisonment, sickness, violent fevers, quarrels, violent lust, military preferment. If at the same time the Sun is in opposition either to the Ascendant or to Mars, violent death. [Robson*, p.182].

The rising Pleiades are indicative of those who are homosexual, like to be flattered, and (with a poorly positioned Mercury) impudent in speech. When setting this group of star can have just the opposite nature. If aspected by benefics (when setting) the indications are of a pleasant death and if aspected by both malefics and benefics the native is said to be fond of arts and perhaps even become a painter who will acquire great honors in his lifetime. As an example of the fortunate nature of the Pleiades, Josephus, the great Jewish historian (37-100 A.D.), wrote that during the investment of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes in 170 B.C. the besieged suffered from a severe lack of water but the city was finally relieved “by a large shower of rain which fell at the setting of the Pleiades”. [Fixed Stars and Judicial Astrology, George Noonan, 1990, p.28.]

“The Pleiades, sisters who vie with each other’s radiance. Beneath their influence devotees of Bacchus (god of wine and ecstasy) and Venus (goddess of love) are born into the kindly light, and people whose insouciance runs free at feasts and banquets and who strive to provoke sweet mirth with biting wit. They will always take pains over personal adornment and an elegant appearance they will set their locks in waves of curls or confine their tresses with bands, building them into a thick topknot, and they will transform the appearance of the head by adding hair to it they will smooth their hairy limbs with the porous pumice, loathing their manhood and craving for sleekness of arm. They adopt feminine dress, footwear donned not for wear but for show, and an affected effeminate gait. They are ashamed of their sex in their hearts dwells a senseless passion for display, and they boast of their malady, which they call a virtue. To give their love is never enough, they will also want their love to be seen”. [Astronomica, Manilius, 1st century AD, book 5, p.310-313].

Pleiades culminating: Disgrace, ruin, violent death. If with the luminaries it makes its natives military captains, commanders, colonels of horse and emperors. [Robson*, p183.]

Pleiades with Sun: Throat ailments, chronic catarrh, blindness, bad eyes, injuries to the face, sickness, disgrace, evil disposition (used to be a term in astrology for homosexuality), murderer or murdered, imprisonment, death by pestilence, blows, stabs, shooting, beheading or shipwreck. If in 7th house, blindness, especially if Saturn or Mars be with Regulus. If with Mars and Venus the native will be a potent king obeyed by many people but subject to many infirmities. [Robson*, p183.]

Pleiades with Moon: Injuries to the face, sickness, misfortune, wounds, stabs, disgrace, imprisonment, blindness, defective sight especially if in the Ascendant or one of the other angles, may be cross-eyed, Color-blind or the eyes may be affected by some growth. If in the 7th house, total blindness especially if Saturn or Mars be with Regulus and the Moon be combust. [Robson*, p183.]

Pleiades with Mercury: Many disappointments, loss of possessions, much loss from legal affairs, business failure, trouble through children. [Robson*, p183.]

Pleiades with Venus: Immoral, strong passions, disgrace through women, sickness, loss of fortune. [Robson*].

Pleiades with Mars: Many accidents to the head, loss and suffering through fires. If at the same time Saturn is with Regulus, violent death in a tumult. [Robson*, p183.]

Pleiades with Jupiter: Deceit, hypocrisy, legal and ecclesiastical troubles, loss through relatives, banishment or imprisonment. [Robson*, p183.]

Pleiades with Saturn: Cautious, much sickness, tumorous ailments, chronic sickness to family many loses. [Robson*, p184.]

Pleiades with Uranus: Active mind, deformity from birth or through accident in childhood, many accidents and troubles, many unexpected losses often through fire or enemies, marriage partner proves false especially if female, troubles through women, occult interests, unfavorable for children, if any, and lack of harmony with them, heavy losses at end of life, violent death. [Robson*, p184.]

Pleiades with Neptune: Bold, military preferment, honor, wealth, help from friends, many serious accidents, many travel, somewhat dishonorable occupation involving secrecy, ill-health to marriage partner and peculiar conditions respecting parentage, bad for children, may lose everything at end of life, violent death, often abroad while following occupation. [Robson*, p184.]


Whereabouts of the Pleiades - Astronomy

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In astronomy, the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters (Messier 45 or M45), is an open star cluster containing middle-aged hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky. The celestial entity has several meanings in different cultures and traditions.

The name of the Pleiades comes from Ancient Greek.the name was later mythologised as the name of seven divine sisters, whose name was imagined to derive from that of their mother Pleione, effectively meaning 'daughters of Pleione'.

The nine brightest stars of the Pleiades are named for the Seven Sisters of Greek mythology: Sterope, Merope, Electra, Maia, Taygeta, Celaeno, and Alcyone, along with their parents Atlas and Pleione. As daughters of Atlas, the Hyades were sisters of the Pleiades.

The Pleiades are a prominent sight in winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and have been known since antiquity to cultures all around the world, including the Celts, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, the Persians, the Arabs, the Chinese, the Japanese, the Maya, the Aztec, and the Sioux and Cherokee.

Interesting factoid: In Japan, the constellation is mentioned under the name Mutsuraboshi ("six stars") in the 8th century Kojiki and Manyosyu documents.

The constellation is also known in Japan as Subaru (&ldquounite&rdquo) and is depicted in the logo and name of the Subaru automobile company.

THE PLEIADES STAR RACES AND HISTORY

Because of savage wars in the Lyran star system, Lyrans were forced out into the mystery of the galaxy. Soon, the Lyran refugees, now known as Pleiadians, found their new home in The Pleiades. This star system is a small cluster of seven stars located in the Constellation of Taurus the Bull, which is 500 light years from the planet Earth. Since the wars on Lyra, Pleiadians remain on Erra seeking the ways taught by their friends, the Arcturians and the Andromedans.

There are seven major stars in the Pleiades Cluster, which are: 1)Taygeta 2) Maia 3) Pleione 4) Atlas 5) Merope 6) Electra 7) Alcoyne. The Pleiadians are a very ancient race of humanoids. They discovered Earth many years ago (225,000 B.C.) and have played a large role in our ancient evolution, but have remained silent watchers of our planet since their departure in 10 A.D.

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The Pleiadians currently hold chairs on the council which oversee for the higher truths of the universe and remain a peaceful race of extraterrestrials. Although they have not reached the spiritual heights of their friends, the Arcturians, they continue to develop the mental skills necessary to eventually reach their spiritual goals however, their state of mind have allowed them to develop the ability to transition in and out of our dimension.

Some speculate that their entire civilization has moved beyond our space and time and exists beyond our understanding. Their main source of transportation is their intergalactic spaceships which are also known as Beamships.

These Beamships have a similar look and feel to the Grey Alien UFOs which are commonly identified during sightings.

Since Billie Meier's contact with the Pleiadian woman, many books and articles have surfaced to shed light on this race of aliens that we seem to identify with very closely. As our trek takes us into the teachings of higher spirituality, we find that many civilizations outside our world have already mastered and understood the benefits of becoming one with the Infinite Powers of the Universe.

If Pleiadians are like humans, why are they in the Pleiades? There are many subjects that intrigue and captivate, but nothing is more interesting than knowing and understanding the history behind the galactic forces that shape our galaxy today.

The Pleiadians today are a hybrid of the indigenous human population that has always resided on the planets of the star constellation Pleiades and the refugees that came from the planet Avalon and other planets in the Lyran star system. Avalon is the first known human world that experienced a horrific destruction at the hands of the Reptilians and the Greys. A galactic war broke out in the far reaches of our galaxy which led to the Reptilians completely destroying the Lyran home planet Avalon. From there, the inhabitants set out to seek safe refuge on distant planets far from the controlling grasps of the Reptilians.

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While seeking a safe passage, the Lyrans encountered one of the most powerful races known to our Universe, the Arcturians. Since then, the Galactic Federation was created to ensure that complete destruction of planets was not allowed and allow for a balance of power in a galaxy controlled by the "evil" Reptilians and Greys.

The majority of Lyrans (Avalon inhabitants) sought refuge on the planet Erra found in the Pleiades constellation. There, Lyrans would advance in ways taught to them by the Arcturians and become the race we know today as the Pleiadians. Some Pleiadians found themselves here on Earth and decided to settle with the ancient cultures of the past.

This is why some Earthlings feel a strong calling and a deep connection to outer space (Lightworkers / Starseeds). Essentially, the Pleiadians are a race of humans that have been disconnected from their home planet Avalon but have now undergone an enormous calling to reach the higher planes of spirituality and fight the "evil" agenda of other races through the positive powers of the Universe. Today, there is no account for the Avalon home planet and its location, but has been rumored to have been abandoned for millions and millions of years now.

Because of their past history, Pleiadians struggle with the hardship of emotional distress and anger towards other races that seek to conquer less advance planets. This presents a massive hurdle for Pleiadians because of their desire to seek the way of the Lightworker. Pleiadians today, possess advance technology that allow them to protect their new planet Erra from the Reptilians (as well as galactic peace agreements arranged through the Galactic Federation) and also offer a protective shield of battle space cruisers for the defense of planet Earth in the event of another Galactic war.

Several of the Pleiadian star systems have human life as we know it, the two most advanced and developed stars are the systems of Taygeta and Alcyone. Most of the Pleaidians look like us in both size and stature, build, color of hair, etc.

Each of the Pleiadian star systems have its own speciality(ies), which are listed below:

Taygeta - star fleet command, advanced technology, star exploration, scientific pursuits

Alcyone - seat of Pleiadian civilization and government, creativity, music, administration, general and varied interests, culture

Merope - home of Pleaidian psycho-spiritual healing, divine feminine mysteries

Maia - Pleiadian pursuit of spiritual knowledge, universal law, shamanism, archeological projects

Electra - advanced technology, inventions, star codes, template builders and implementers

Atlas - navigation and travel, star-mapping, astronomy, science

Pleione - Pleiadian sanctuary star system, rest and respite for Pleiadians, deep spirituality and contemplation

I&rsquom not sure of the other Pleiadian stars, such as Celaeno and Sterope. I think the Pleiaidians tried to colonize them with little success.

One of the planets in the Sterope system was destroyed by Orion-based Reptilians during the Orion Wars.

PLEIADIAN CULTURE AND INFLUENCE ON EARTH

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The Pleiadians and the alphabets of Earth are both very similar. This was noted as of about 11,157 years ago that the script form was developed here on Earth and carried back to the seven sisters. This script form is the parent of most of our present day alphabets.


They are also very affluent and articulate when speaking any of our languages, or discussing our sciences, history, etc. We have inherited our aggressiveness towards each other from them. Their life spans far exceed our own by at least 10 times what is our norm. Their technology has made it possible to travel anywhere in our Universe at speeds faster than the speed of light.

They are capable of using the oceans for undersea operations. They are very concerned about our misuse for our sciences today and that we have completely lost our spiritual center or harmony with our sciences. They have no use for money, politics and religions, clearly stating that the later two-politics and religions are really the same. The Pleiadians are worried as our most benevolent races visit, that we will destroy our planet and ourselves.

All Earths languages are derived from a ancient Pre-Sumerian language called Tamil which was spoken in Lyra and in the Pleaides. The Pleiadians as well as other groups have left descendants on the Earth in the past. They have said they are willing to help us but not to the point of changing our own evolution and then therefore becoming responsible for us as a race.

THE PLEIADIAN LIGHT COUNCIL

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The Pleiadian Council was formed approximately 200,000 years after the first Great Galactic War. The aftermath of the Galactic war in the Lyra system sent the humanoid Lyran civilization throughout the galaxy. Historically, this event has been the most dramatic and desperate time for humanity to date. Many of the Lyran refugees made their way to the Pleiadian star system.

The Pleiades Star cluster contains over 14 stars and spans 8 light years across. The Lyran refugees used large transport ships to depart to the Pleiades systems, beyond their equipment they had very little left after the war.

The planet Erra, which orbits the star system of the star Taygeta, was currently inhabited but extremely remote and had a very small and slightly primitive population. There are many other planets in the Pleiades Star Cluster, however most are uninhabitable (Taygeta has 10 planets orbiting the star). Other refugees went to the lesser planets in the Pleiades known to us as Semjase, Ptaah, and Quetzal.

After a period of over 200,000 years the Pleiadian civilization began to flourish. Not only were the four main planets of Erra, Semjase, Ptaah, and Quetzal thriving, but Pleiadians were beginning to explore and terraform other planets in the Pleiades star cluster and beyond. At this time the Pleiadians formed the Pleiadian Council of Light (also known as the High Council, locally).

The Pleiadians Light Council provides Spiritual, Tactical, and Governmental guidance to the Pleiadians. The Council consists of 12 members per division with 12 divisions in total creating a total of 144 elected High Council Members. There is hierarchy among the divisions with the Grand Council of Light being headed on the planet Erra.

The Council performs many different tasks overseeing the entirety of Pleiadian relations with the rest of the Galaxy. The Pleiadians Light Council is an essential member of the Galactic Federation of Worlds and has a enormous impact on the decisions made for the galactic whole.

BULL & BEARS - PLEIADIANS IN US HISTORY

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What do George Washington, the Pleiades, the NYSE, and Freemasons all have in common? The following evidence speaks of a grand design of possible extraterrestrial origin far too astounding to be a mere coincidence.

George Washington is perhaps the most famous of all American Presidents and the founder of the Union of the United States of America. However, many do not know that George Washington was a master Freemason and spread clues to secret knowledge in his glorious work. Evidence exists that Washington had contact with higher extraterrestrial beings. Read the following excerpt, in General Washington's own words written during the difficult period of Valley Forge:

I do not know whether it is owing to the anxiety of my mind, or what, but this afternoon, as I was sitting at this table engaged in preparing a dispatch, something in the apartment seemed to disturb me. Looking up, I beheld standing opposite me a singularly beautiful being. So astonished was I, for I had given strict orders not to be disturbed that it was some moments before I found language to inquire the cause of the visit. A second, a third, and even a fourth time did I repeat my question, but received no answer from my mysterious visitor except a slight raising of the eyes." "By this time I felt strange sensations spreading through me. I would have risen but the riveted gaze of the being before me rendered volition

impossible. I assayed once more to speak, but my tongue had become useless, as if paralyzed. A new influence, mysterious, potent, irresistible, took possession of me. All I could do was to gaze steadily, vacantly at my unknown visitor." - George Washington

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This mysterious visitor showed Washington insights into the future of America and the prosperity of the country. As George Washington continued to plan for the future of the country he spread numerous clues to the Freemason and secret society influence. The design of the currency, the planning of cities, and the structure of government all contained links to the secrets of the Freemasons.

The inauguration address of George Washington as president occurred on April 30th 1789 when the Pleiades was culminating over New York City. At the time New York City was the seat of government and capital of the United States. The Nations first president swore his oath on the balcony of the Senate Chamber at Federal Hall on Wall Street (There now stands a dramatic monument to this historic event across the corner from the New York Stock Exchange). The very Bible President Washington swore his oath on was property of New York&rsquos St. John Masonic Lodge. Additionally, every FreeMason would have known this date to be the date of the Feast of Beltane, a significant ancient Celtic event.

In the very same location 3 years and 17 days later a group of 17 investment bankers gathered under the &ldquobuttonwood tree&rdquo and formed the New York Stock Exchange. The NYSE is now the largest capital market in the world and a creator of vast amounts of wealth and abundance.

These bankers gathering together would have been akin to the wealthiest men and women (Oprah, Bill Gates, Donald Trump, Warren Buffet) in America gather together to create a public system for companies and individuals to interact and create wealth.

This date also holds a significance It is no coincidence that the formation of the government and the formation of the capital markets of America have significant conjunctions with the Pleiades Star Cluster. At this very date, in New York City, the chief star of the Pleiades, Alcyone, was in direct conjunction with the sunrise to the very minute of arc.

To the dedicated freemason, astronomy and math were subjects of great importance as they held the secrets to the Grand Architect of the Universe. Any dedicate and active Freemason would have been well aware of the significance of the astronomy present and this agreement. Indeed it is no coincidence that the Pleiades holds strong connections and ties to many of the nations of the Earth including the United States of America. It cannot be a coincidence that both ancient cultures and Masonic arcane teachings reverie the Pleiades in connection with the creation of wealth and abundance.

The Pleiades lies in the constellation of Taurus the Bull. Here lies the origin of the term the Bull Market, when stocks prices are on the rise and there are more buyers than sellers. Conversely, the term Bear Market is also associated with astronomical significance of Ursa Major, the Great Bear (is there any coincidence the bear is intertwined with the snake Draco).

Ancient cultures have also referred to Bulls as symbols of the quest for abundance. The Ancient Egyptians god Apis was a bull of vast wealth ceremonially decorated as he was portrayed ushering in a new kingdom. The Ancient Indians and Vedic texts spoke of the bulls as gods. All of this evidence pointing back to the stars and the Pleiades.

With the culmination of all of these significant events all occurring in accordance with the Freemason master plan for the foundation of the country one cannot dismiss the possibility that the Freemasons had knowledge of superior extraterrestrial secrets.


The Seven Sisters in astronomy

The Pleiades, also known as ‘The Seven Sisters’, is the nearest star cluster to earth situated between 434 and 446 light years away. The cluster is the source of the names of each of the sisters in The Seven Sisters series.

The Pleiades is positioned near the shoulder of Taurus (The Bull), the larger constellation to the right of Orion’s Belt. Each of the stars is over 100 times brighter than our sun, and the human eye, from any country on the globe, can see at least six stars, with a seventh which varies in brightness and is not always visible – the reason for this fluctuation in brightness is still unknown. Some people with exceptional eyesight claim to be able to see up to 20 stars in the cluster without the aid of a telescope.

There are thought to be as many as 1000 stars in the cluster, the core of which spans 8 light years in diameter. The cluster is dominated by ‘hot blue stars’ which have formed within the past 100 million years and astronomers believe that the cluster will survive for another 250 million years.


Watch the video: Sternengeschichten Folge 329: Die Plejaden (January 2023).